The Adjustments are found within a sub-menu within the Image menu. Most of them can also be found as non-destructive Adjustment Layers in the Layers Pallet. There are a whole load of them but most of them are not useful to us, and some are completely useless to anyone. These are the most you will normally need:
Notice the lack of the Color Balance adjustment. Though popular with newbies, far better color adjustments can be made using Curves.